Many people like gardening at home, and it’s easy to understand why. Growing your own flowers, herbs, and veggies may be a fulfilling activity that makes you feel accomplished and satisfied. There are many tips and tactics to help you get the most out of your gardening efforts, whether you are an experienced gardener or are just getting started. We’ll provide you some helpful home gardening information in this post to get you started on your gardening adventure. These suggestions can assist you in quickly growing a wholesome and fruitful garden, from picking the ideal area to harvesting your plants at the ideal moment.
Significant changes have been observed in the production method of fruits in the past years. Due to large size canopy in fruit horticulture done by traditional method, there has often been a problem in achieving the desired goal of productivity. Therefore, early stage height control and canopy management are important techniques to increase fruit production and productivity. It should be used in fruit trees and series crops to get higher income of fruit growers.
Tree canopy management is the most important factor for fruit production. Canopy management is the change in the canopy of a tree in order to obtain better quality fruits. In most of the fruit trees, by manipulation of canopy management maximum production of good quality fruits can be taken by creation of small size trees. A small tree receives more sunlight than a big tree. Fruit production increases by taking more amount of sunlight and its conversion. The radiation received from the sun and the use of this radiation by the canopy of the tree are the main factors that determine the fruits.
The question always arises as to why the trees should not be left to spread naturally. The simple answer can be that nature’s purpose and ours are not always the same. Nature wants the plant to survive for the promotion of its progeny vine. Nature doesn’t care that how much quantity of good shaped, high quality fruits to produce from the tree. To get good fruits as well as high yield, the natural form and texture of the fruit trees is improved by tree pruning. goes. Fruit growers wish to scientifically control the growth and development of their fruit trees. It is not always prudent to allow trees to grow naturally as unwanted growth of the tree is not beneficial from the point of view of fruit production. The removal of these unnecessary parts of the tree is called pruning. By properly pruning the tree, good quality fruits can be obtained by giving a special shape to the plant.
Climate plays an important role in harvesting. According to the shape and size of the trees grown in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climates and the specific objectives of the gardeners, there is a need to prune and prune the trees. Canopy management depends on the nature and growth sequence of the tree, the number of trees per hectare and the pruning technique.
Pruning is appropriate when the tree is in its young stage and is taking its original shape and size, which should be continued till the tree matures.
In commercial gardens, pruning shears simplify everyday tasks. Where trees grow beyond their designated area, pruning can increase the fruit area. Where the trees are dense, there is a decrease in the formation of fruits due to the shade in the lower area. Sunlight easily reaches the upper and lower part of the tree by cutting and pruning and as a result of increase in the fruit surface, more fruits are formed. The shoots emerging from the rhizome (i.e. below the scion assembly) should be removed. Pruning the scion of a young tree only delays growth and prolongs the adolescence of the tree. Pruning is done either to encourage thinning of tree growth or to reduce the size of the tree. In fruit bearing trees, thinning results in more vegetative growth, fewer internal shoots. The fruit tree gets a favorable environment to grow and spread. Pruning from the top by topping and hedging reduces the spreading branches.
There is an urgent need to plant about 10 times more plants per unit area to meet the global challenge in the international market and to nurture the growing population in the country. This is possible only when canopy management is adopted so that the sun’s rays can easily reach the inner parts of the tree and more number of fruits are obtained from the trees. Canopy management is directly related to dry matter production, budding and fruit quality.
In this manual pruning-pruning has been highlighted in depth and it has been clarified according to the requirement of each fruit tree. The pruning of different fruit trees has been highlighted in depth and it has been clarified according to the requirement of each fruit tree. The objectives, principles and economic aspects of pruning of various fruit trees have been explained comprehensively with practical examples, and suggestions have also been given according to the needs of different sections of farmers engaged in fruit production.
The most suitable option to deal with low productivity: –
1. Plant, tree power, energy and climate
2. Climate component
3. Soil Fertility
4. Water Availability
5. Crop Management
Is Plant Canopy Management Necessary :-
1. Controls the desired tree size at the very beginning.
2. More trees can be planted per unit area.
3. Improves Sun Radiation
4. Facilitates agricultural operations.
5. Increases yield of good fruits.
Benefits of dwarf trees: –
1. In addition to ease of fruit harvesting, it also costs less.
2. The number of its fruit-bearing branches is more than that of unproductive branches.
3. It is easy to spray the medicine for the control of pests and diseases.
4. Planting more trees is possible in a limited area to get higher economic benefits.
5. Maximum use of light.
6. Preventing the formation of favorable micro-climate to avoid disease and pest infection.
7. Convenient position in doing promotion work.
8. Maximum productivity with quality fruit production.
9. Economical in getting the desired canopy texture.
Basic principles of canopy management: –
Canopy management is to change the canopy of the tree to get more number and quality fruits. Canopy management, especially plant pruning and pruning, has an effect on the amount of sunlight reaching the inner parts of the tree, because the leaves spread according to the structure of the tree and the amount of sunlight radiation received by the tree. determines. The systematic arrangement of various parts of the tree is an ideal cultivation strategy which involves developing a better structural shape especially for the tree, which will make optimum use of sunlight and also promote productivity.
Sunlight is very essential for the growth and development of trees and fruits. Green leaves capture sunlight to make carbohydrates and sugars, which are then transported to other needy parts of the tree, such as buds, flowers and fruits. Increase in the amount of sunlight in the canopy of the tree increases the growth, productivity, yield and quality of the fruit. The density and orientation of plants also have an effect on the sunlight coming into the garden. Early shading is usually a problem for closely spaced trees. Row planting in east-west direction gives more shade as compared to west and south facing trees. Large number of fruits grow in strong fruitful shoots. The first problem of gardeners is to give a strong and balanced shape to the tree in its initial period so that uniform fruiting can be obtained from it. The purpose of pruning in the initial years is to correct the tree so that the tree can be given a strong shape and structure in which all the branches can be given the desired place and desired shape.
1. Maximum use of light.
2. Preventing the formation of favorable micro-climate to avoid disease and pest infection.
3. Convenient position for doing promotional work.
4. Maximum productivity with quality fruit production.
5. Economical in getting the desired canopy texture.
Objectives of canopy pruning :-
The main objectives of pruning are to control the texture and growth of the first plant and to increase the production and quality of the second fruit. With the help of cultural activities, the plant is grown and enlarged according to the desire of the gardener. Under these broad objectives, the pruning work is used for one or more of the following purposes. Which includes –
1. Re-establishing shoot-root ratio.
2. To prevent the formation of weak branches.
3. Controlling the number and location of the main structural branch.
4. To prevent the twigs from climbing on top of each other and blocking.
5. Removal of water shoot / end rhizome (hybrid).
6. To control the growth, strength and direction of the shoot.
7. Keeping the canopy of the plant open.
8. Controlling growth and fruiting.
9. Controlling regular functions.
10. Controlling plant size for high density plantation.
11. Controlling the access of sunlight to the interior parts of the plant.
12. To increase the size of the fruit.
13. Simplifying gardening works.
14. Increasing the life of the plant.
15. Renovation of old and dense gardens.
16. Disease and pest control
17. To give desirable shape to the plant.
co. Fruit tree distance m. number of seedlings
1. Guava 1.5X3 2222
2. Mango 3 X4 833
3. Amla 4 X5 500
4. Cashew 4.4 X4.4 516
5. Citrus fruits
1 Lime and Lemon 3 X3 1111
2 Malta/Orange 4 X4.5 555
6. Litchi 4.5 X4.5 494
7. Banana 1.8 X1.8 3086
8. Plum 6 X6 278
9. Bell 8 X8 156
10. Sharifa Custard Apple 25 X25 1600
11. Jackfruit 10 X10 100
12. Jamun 10 X10 100
13. Cranberry 3 X2 1600
14. Cheeku 5 X5 400
15. Pomegranate 4 X3 833
16. Mahua 10 X10 100
Sonu Diwakar, Hemant Kumar, Lalit Kumar Verma
Pandit Kishori Lal Shukla Uddanki College and Research Center Rajnandgaon, (Chhattisgarh)
English Summary: Canopy management of fruit trees Published on: 30 July 2018, 05:27 IST