Many people like gardening at balcony, and it’s easy to learn why. Growing your own flowers, herbs, and veggies may be a fulfilling activity that makes you feel accomplished and satisfied. There are many tips and tactics to help you get the most out of your gardening efforts, whether you are an experienced gardener or are just getting started. We’ll provide you some helpful home gardening suggestions in this post to get you started on your gardening adventure. These suggestions can assist you in quickly growing a wholesome and fruitful garden, from picking the ideal area to harvesting your plants at the ideal moment.
It is an evergreen tree, whose average height is 30 meters. Its fruits are green in color which turn dark purple as they ripen. While on one hand its fruits are tasty and beneficial for health, on the other hand, Jamun seeds are also used in the preparation of Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in diabetes.
Climate for Blackberry
To grow Jamun tree, temperate and tropical climate is required. Centuries of frost and excessive heat in summer affect the Jamun tree. Heavy rains during the flowering stage reduce production. Small plants of Jamun need protection from hot air and frost.
Selection of soil
Well-drained loamy soil is suitable for obtaining high yield of Jamun. PH of land for horticulture/cultivation of berries. The value must be between 5 and 8.
Improved varieties of Jamun
There are many improved varieties of Jamun from which more production of high quality Jamun can be taken. Raja Jamu: This variety is most widely grown in the country. The fruits of this variety are big and dark purple in colour, which are very juicy and big in size while the berries of Guthli variety are small in size.
CISHJ-45: It is a seedless variety of Jamun with medium sized oval shaped fruits. After ripening, they become black and dark blue. The fruits of this variety are juicy and sweet in taste. This variety of Jamun is famous in North .
Ri Jamun: This type of plant bears fruits in the rainy season, whose fruits are dark purple or blue in colour. Its fruits are oval and kernels are very small, inside which there is sweet juicy pulp with slight sourness. This variety is grown more in Punjab.
Goma Priyanka: This variety of Jamun is considered very good. The taste of this type of fruit is sweet and the amount of pulp is high. The fruits ripen and get ready in the rainy season.
Katha: The fruits of this variety are deep purple and small in size. It is sour in taste and less in pulp.
CISHJ-37: This variety of Jamun is derived from Central for Sub-Tropical Horticulture, Lucknow. The fruits of this variety are dark black in colour, kernel size is small, pulp is sweet and juicy. This variety is also prepared after ripening in the rainy season.
Apart from these, Narendra 6, Konkan Bhadoli, and Rajendra 1 are also improved varieties of Jamun. From which good production can be taken in different areas.
Method of sowing/ planting
Seeds should be treated with Bavistin medicine. Sow 4-5 cm deep at a distance of 25 X 15 cm in the nursery of friable soil. Germination starts from the seeds after 10 to 15 days. Transplant the Jamun plants at the onset of monsoon after about a year. At the time of planting, fill the pit with good soil and well-rotted cow dung mixed in 3:1 ratio.
Jamun tree can be attacked by many types of pests and diseases, due to which there is a possibility of huge decline in production. The details of pests and diseases affecting Jamun trees are as follows –
Spider: This six-legged small creature sucks the juice from the leaves and twists it and covers the leaves with a net, which adversely affects the process of photosynthesis by the trees and the tree does not become food. Not only this, the fruits get spoiled by mixing with each other. To prevent this disease, pluck the collected leaves and burn them before fruiting. Along with this, 1 ml of Chlorpyriphos should be sprayed in 1 liter of water.
Thrips: Due to this pest, white spots appear on the leaves, which later turns yellow. It is a sucking pest, for whose control Profenophos 50% EC @ 30 ml or Acephate 75% SP @ 18 grams or Fipronil 5% SC @ 25 ml per 15 liters of water should be sprayed.
Fruit borer: This insect rots the fruit by making a tunnel inside the fruit. Spray Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG @ 0.5 per liter of water to prevent it or as a biological treatment, spray Bavaria bassiana @ 2.5 grams per liter of water.
Leaf Blight Disease: On the occurrence of this disease brown-yellow spots are formed on the leaves of the trees and the leaves start drying up and shrinking from the edges. Due to which the tree looks scorched. To prevent this, spraying of Mancozeb 75 WP at the rate of 2 grams per liter can be done.
Anthracnose Disease: With this disease, symptoms like spotting on the leaves, falling of leaves and drying of twigs etc. are visible. To control it, spray Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2 gm per liter of water per acre or as an organic spray with Trichoderma viridi @ 2 gm per liter of water.
Manure & Fertilizer
Apply 20-25 kg of well rotten cow dung manure per plant per year. When the plant reaches the stage of bearing fruits, increase the amount of manure to 50-60 kg per plant per year. After that the tree should be given Nitrogen 500 grams, Potash 600 grams and Phosphorus 300 grams per plant per year.
In the beginning, when the plant is planted in the pit, light irrigation should be done. After this, continuous irrigation is required. Jamun tree is considered hardy, so irrigation 6-7 times a year is sufficient. Most of the irrigation is done by Thala method. Give water as per requirement at an interval of 10-15 days during summer and 20-25 days in winter. There is no need to water it during the rainy season. The plant prepared from seed starts bearing fruits after 6-7 years whereas the plants prepared by peach budding or cuttings start bearing fruits after 3-4 years.
Growing of weeds around Jamun trees increases the problem of pests and diseases. Do the work of weeding by hand or agricultural machinery. Weedicides should be avoided because its opposite effect can also be seen on trees.
Fruit harvesting and storage
The harvesting of fruits usually starts from May-June and continues till August. Its fruits should be plucked every day. When the fruits turn black or dark purple, they become eligible for harvesting. The fruits are then packed in bamboo baskets or wooden boxes. To keep the berries for 5-6 days, they have to be kept at low temperature. Packing the fruits well to avoid damage and take them to the market for sale at the right time.
80-100 kg of fruits can be taken from one Jamun tree.
Cost and profit in Jamun orchards
The cost of setting up a Jamun orchard is around Rs 35,000 and the annual maintenance cost is estimated at Rs 25,000. Its profit depends on the variety and maintenance of the gardens, for this the net profit is three times of the cost.
There are many government institutes of horticulture and agricultural universities in the country which can be contacted.
n Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore or Director can be contacted at 080-28466471 080-28466353.
Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture, Rahmankheda, Lucknow or by calling on 0522-2841022, 0522-2841023, 0522-2841027 or visit the website of this institute http://www.cish.res.in/hindi/index.php May go.
Farmers can also be contacted on helpline number 1800-180-1551.
English Summary: Complete information on the cultivation of Blackberry Published on: 11 November 2020, 06:18 IST