Many people like gardening at home, and it’s easy to understand why. Growing your own flowers, herbs, and veggies may be a fulfilling activity that makes you feel accomplished and satisfied. There are many tips and tactics to help you get the most out of your gardening efforts, whether you are an experienced gardener or are just getting started. We’ll provide you some helpful home gardening information in this post to get you started on your gardening adventure. These suggestions can assist you in quickly growing a wholesome and fruitful garden, from picking the ideal area to harvesting your plants at the ideal moment.
We can use organic fertilizers like cow dung manure, compost, green manure etc. as a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Among these, green manure is the easiest and best method. Due to the decrease in livestock, the need for farmers to depend on the availability of cow dung is also reduced. Due to the development of intensive agriculture method and increase in the area under cash crops, there has definitely been a decrease in the use of green manure, but due to the growing energy crisis, increase in the prices of fertilizers and the limited supply of cow dung, the importance of green manure has increased today. . On the other hand, due to continuous exploitation of the soil, the essential nutrients present in it for the growth of plants are being destroyed. To compensate for these and to maintain the fertile power of the soil, green manure is the best option. Green manure is prevalent in mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Jharkhand.
green manure ?
The process of plowing and pressing pulses and pulses in the field with the aim of increasing the amount of organic matter and nutrients in the soil in the green state is called green manure. It is a type of organic manure which improves the physico-chemical condition of the soil by increasing the amount of organic matter and increases the availability of various nutrients.
Types of Green Manure:
1. Green manure crops grown in the same place: – This method is more popular in most of the areas of , in which the crops are grown in the same field where the green manure is to be used, after a certain time, the plows turn the soil. It is plowed and left to rot in the soil. At present, by using rotavator instead of plowing and plowing, decomposition of green matter is done quickly and easily by mixing the standing crop with the soil. In this method, pulses or pulses are sown for green manure. The crop is grown only in those areas where there is sufficient facility of irrigation. For green manure, fast growing crops like dhaincha, guar, moong, urad, sani and cowpea etc. are sown and buried in the field in flowering stage.
2. Green manure crops grown away from their place: – This method is effective for those areas where annual rainfall is less. This method is not very popular in , but in South , green manure crop is grown in another field, and after cutting it at the right time, it is plowed and mixed in the field where green manure is to be given. In this method, plants, leaves of bushes, twigs etc. lying in forests, farm meadows, waste lands and other places are collected and mixed in the desired field. The leaves can be of both pulse and pulse plants. Example- Subbool, Evergreen, Amaltash, White Ank etc.
Crops suitable for making green manure: –
Generally, dhencha, labia, urad, moong, guar, berseem and flax etc. crops are suitable for making green manure. Pulses or leguminous crops are more suitable for green manure, because the Rhizobium bacteria present in the root nodes of these crops interact with the atmosphere. takes up nitrogen. Along with this, vegetative growth of these crops is also good and their roots also go deep and crop duration is also short. Of these, Sanai and Dhaincha have been found more suitable.
1. Sanai – It is used in North . It is an excellent crop for green manure. It cannot be used in places with heavy rainfall. It is inverted into the soil 6 to 8 weeks after sowing. Its seed rate is 80-100 kg/ha.
2. Dhaincha- Dhaincha has a major place in green manure crops after Sanai. It can be grown successfully in all types of soil like barren and saline soil, where drainage is not good, less or more rainfall. It is a suitable fertilizer for most of the crops. Its seed rate is 80-100 kg/ha.
3. Urad and Moong- Their green manure can be prepared easily at almost every place where there is no water logging. 50 or 60 days after sowing the crop is plowed in the field along with plucking the pods. Their seed rate is 20-22 kg/ha.
4. Guar- In the northern and western parts of where there is less rainfall, Guar is used for green manure. About 65 kg nitrogen per hectare is obtained from this.
Benefits of Green Manuring:
1. Soil structure improves.
2. Biological activity of soil increases. As a result, the availability of nutrients available in the soil to the plants increases.
3. Pulses supply nitrogen to the soil by fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
4. Water holding capacity of soil increases.
5. Green manure develops deep roots in the soil due to which air circulation in the soil becomes good.
6. Green manure protects nutrients from leaching and leaching.
7. Reduces runoff and soil erosion by increasing rainwater infiltration.
8. Many organic acids are produced by pressing the green manure crops in the soil, which helps in reducing the alkalinity of the soil and green manure crops also prevent the formation of alkaline soil by preventing evaporation.
9. The green manure crop does not allow light to reach the weed plants by growing quickly and helps in destroying the weeds quickly by taking water and nutrients from the soil.
10. The increasing cost of chemical fertilizers can be reduced by the use of green manure.
11. Decomposition of green manure crops produces carbon dioxide which combines with water to form organic acids and increases the availability of phosphorus, copper, manganese, iron and zinc etc. in the soil.
12. Soluble nutrients do not reach the lower layers of the soil by leaching.
benefits of green manure
Characteristics of crops suitable for green manure: The following characteristics/points should be taken care of in green manure crops:
1. The crop should be fast growing.
2. The demand of water, manure and fertilizer of the crop should be minimum.
3. There should be disease and pest resistant crop.
4. The crop can be grown successfully even in less fertile land.
5. The number of leaves and branches should be more in the crop, so that maximum amount of organic matter can be added per hectare.
6. The crop should be drought, flood and different temperature tolerant.
7. The vegetative parts of the crop should be soft so that they can rot easily.
8. The selected pulse crop should have maximum atmospheric nitrogen fixation capability so that maximum nitrogen can be available to the soil.
9. The crop should have a deep root system, so that the soil can become loose and nutrients can be absorbed from deep in the soil and stored in the plant.
Sowing time and seed rate of green manure
Different types of climate are found in our country. Therefore, one time for sowing green manure crops cannot be fixed for all areas. Sowing should be done immediately after the onset of rains and if irrigation facility is available then sowing of green manure crops should be done before the onset of rains. That is, after harvesting the crop in the month of March-April, irrigate the land and sprinkle the desired seeds in the field. There should be sufficient moisture in the field while sowing the crop for green manure. The amount of seed for sowing green manure crops depends on the size of the seed. The seed rates of the main crops sown for green manure are listed in Table 1.
Table 1: Green manure crops, sowing time, seed rate and production potential
Technology of using green manure
To get proper benefits from green manure crop, knowledge of the method of using it is essential. There should be such a gap between the pressing of green manure in the fields and the sowing of the next crop that the nutrients obtained from the green manure can be received by the next crop.
Sowing of main crop: Within two weeks of pressing the green manure into the soil, the main crop should be sown so that the plants can get the necessary nutrients.
Difficulties in using green manure:
1. Lack of water – A lot of water is required for the growth and decomposition of the green manure crop, in the absence of which the green manure does not decompose properly.
2. Farmers do not have detailed knowledge about the time of sowing of green manure, the time of replanting, the time of sowing of the next crop, at what depth the plants should be buried in the soil for rotting etc.
3. Due to high demand for fodder, farmers sow fodder or grain crops instead of green manure crop in Kharif crop.
4. There is also a shortage of good quality equipments on the farmers for its reversal.
5. The economic condition of the farmers is not good.
6. Sometimes even the seed is not available on time.
Precautions in using green manure:
1. Mostly green manure should be turned within six to eight weeks after sowing in the field and when the flowering stage starts and its branch is soft, juicy, without fibrous and has maximum leaves on it, so that the crop can rot easily.
2. When the glands are completely formed in the roots of pulse crops, in that condition the crop should be turned over and mixed with the soil.
3. Cultivation of leguminous crop of green manure with super phosphate has proved to be more beneficial. In the presence of phosphorus, micro-organisms present in the nodules on the roots fix more nitrogen.
4. Green manure should be used only when the means of irrigation is available in areas with less rainfall.
5. By turning the green manure at a particular stage, the land gets maximum nitrogen and organic matter.
6. It is beneficial to rotate the flax crop after 50-55 days, dhaincha crop after 40-45 days and berseem crop after 3-4 harvests.
7. After harvesting of beans in urad and moong, the crops can be plowed and mixed in the soil. By the way, after the stage of 40-50 days, the soil is plowed well with a plow and 15-20 cm. m. The crop should be filled with water after mixing it with the soil at a depth of .
8. About one month before the sowing of the main crop, the green manure crop should be buried in the soil with the help of a soil turning plough.
9. Crop rotation should be done when the crop is about to bear fruit.
10. After ploughing, it is important to note that the crop should be well covered with a thick layer of moist soil.
11. While pressing it should be kept in mind that the plants are well buried in the soil so that rotting can take place properly.
12. If there is lack of moisture in the field after turning the crop, then the field should be irrigated as per the requirement.
13. Due to the hardening of their fibers, the process of their decomposition does not happen smoothly, so when the fiber is soft, it is appropriate to plow and turn the crop in the same condition.
14. It is not appropriate to turn the soil in a very young stage because all the things melt and no residue remains in the soil.
Where to get seeds for green manure crop?
Farmer brothers can get technical advice and advanced varieties of seeds for green manure crops from Agricultural Universities, Agricultural Research Centers, Agricultural Research Sub-Centers and Krishi Vigyan Kendras.
English Summary: Green manure – cheap alternative to soil health and more yield Published on: 14 August 2018, 01:32 IST