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Maize is the main crop of Kharif season, but where there are sufficient means of irrigation, it can be taken as an early crop of Rabi and Kharif. This crop is a very good source of carbohydrates. Apart from this, it contains Vitamin A, B1, B2, Niacin and other nutrients.
Maize is eaten in many ways like baby corn, flour, roasted cobs, semi-cooked and roasted grains, cornflakes etc. Considering the various uses of maize, it is necessary to increase its yield. But in its successful production, many types of problems like pests and diseases etc. come in the way.
Pests reduce the yield and quality of the crop. Therefore, if these pests are controlled on time, then the damage can be reduced to a great extent.
The description and management of pests applied in maize are as follows.
1) Stem borer
This is the most harmful insect of maize, the damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars. Its trunks are 20-25 mm. It is long and dirty to grayish white in colour. Whose head is black and has four long brown lines. Its caterpillar eats the plants by making holes in the stems.
Due to which the cabbage of plants dries up in small crops, in large plants it makes holes on the middle leaves. The plants become weak due to the attack of this pest, and the yield is greatly reduced. Outbreak of this pest is more in the month of June to September.
After harvesting the maize crop, the remaining residues, weeds and other plants should be destroyed.
Affected plants should be removed and destroyed.
For the prevention of this pest, starting from the 10th day of crop growth, 4 sprays should be done at an interval of 10 days in the following manner.
First spraying 200 grams Carbaryl (Sevin) 50 g. Get. Mix it in 200 liters of water and do it after 10 days of crop growth at the rate of per acre.
Second spraying 300 grams of carbaryl 50 g. Get. Mix it in 300 liters of water and do it after 20 days of crop growth at the rate of per acre.
Third spraying after 30 days of crop growth, 400 grams of carbaryl 50 g. Get. per acre by mixing in 400 liters of water.
After 40 days of emergence, do the fourth spraying in the same way as the third spraying.
These are brown insects which harm the crop by sucking the juice from the leaves. It stops the growth of small plants. Yellow spots appear on the leaves of the infected plants. These pests harm the crop from April to July.
3) Green Leaf Hopper
These are green colored insects. Its babies and adults keep sucking the juice from the lower surface of the leaves. They also damage the crop from April to July.
250 ml for the prevention of Churda and Green Oil. Malathion 50 EC Dissolve in 250 liters of water and spray at the rate of per acre.
Weeds growing in and around the field should be destroyed.
4) Soldier insect
The damage to the crop is small by the caterpillars. Small caterpillars eat the leaves of cabbage and after growing up, they also sieve other leaves. These insects cause damage to the crop at night. This insect is often seen in infected plants. Causes more damage in September – October.
It is also called Fudka or Phadka. Because they move by jumping, these insects are brown in color. When the plants are in small stage then its damage is more in the crop.
10 kg for the prevention of soldier moth and fudka. Dust methyl parathion at the rate of 2 percent horseradish per acre.
6) Hairy Worm (Katra)
The damage to the crop is caused by the caterpillars, when these caterpillars are in small stage, they gather on the lower surface of the leaves. And sieves the leaves. When it is in a big state, it roams here and there in the whole field. And it damages the leaves by eating them.
The crops should be inspected thoroughly and the egg clusters of the weevil should be destroyed.
At the beginning of the attack, small larvae are present in more numbers on some leaves. That’s why pluck such leaves along with the caterpillars and bury them deep in the ground or destroy them by immersing them in kerosene oil solution.
Collect the big caterpillars and bury them deep in the ground or destroy them by putting them in kerosene.
Weeds should be destroyed in and around the field.
After harvesting Kharif crops in the fields, do deep plowing so that the pupae hidden in the ground come out and are eaten by birds.
250 ml for prevention of large grubs. Monocrotophras (Nuvacran) 36 S.L. or 200ml Dichlorvas (Newwan) 76 EC Or 500 ml. Quinalphos (Acalax) 25 EC Sprinkle in 250 liters of water per acre.
Rumi Rawal and Krishna Rollanian, Department of Entomology,
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar.
English Summary: Soak the pests with maize crop … Published on: 25 May 2018, 05:41 IST