Many people like gardening at patio, and it’s easy to understand why. Growing your own flowers, herbs, and veggies may be a fulfilling activity that makes you feel accomplished and satisfied. There are many tips and methods to help you get the most out of your gardening efforts, whether you are an experienced gardener or are just getting started. We’ll provide you some useful home gardening advice in this post to get you started on your gardening adventure. These suggestions can assist you in quickly growing a wholesome and fruitful garden, from picking the ideal area to harvesting your plants at the ideal moment.
papaya mealybug attack
Papaya is delicious as well as beneficial for our health. It is one of the five major fruits of our country. Papaya plants can be easily grown alone or as intercropping with other fruit plants like mango, guava, pomegranate, lemon etc. Its plant starts getting fruits after 8-10 months of planting.
Papaya is a fruit of tropical and sub-tropical climate, but it can be easily grown in temperate climate as well. 24-28 degree Celsius temperature has been found suitable for good growth of plants. The effect of frost is more on its crop, so when the temperature falls below 12 degree Celsius at night, it is fatal for the growth and fruit production of plants.
Light loamy or loamy soil with good drainage and pH value between 6.5 to 7.5 is considered best for its cultivation. Papaya plants are sensitive to water logging, so the area where there is a possibility of water stagnation is not suitable for its cultivation.
Pusa Delicious, Taiwan 786 (Red Lady), Pusa Majesty, Pusa Giant, Pusa Dwarf, Pusa Tiny, Coorg Honey Dew, Surya, Co. 1, Ko.2, Ko.3, etc. are its best varieties.
Method of propagation
Propagation of papaya is done by seeds. Normally there are about 60 to 70 seeds in one gram of papaya. Fresh seeds should be used because germination capacity starts decreasing after about 6 months. About 2500 to 3000 plants are required to plant papaya in one hectare field, which is obtained from about 80-100 grams of seeds in gynodioecious varieties while 400-500 grams of seeds are required for traditional varieties.
Papaya plants are going to be ready soon, so the seeds should be sown in the nursery two months before the scheduled date of planting in the main field. The height of two month old plants becomes about 15-20 cm. Papaya seedlings can be prepared in beds, polythene bags and pro trays. Seeds should be sown after treating them with any fungicide Carbendzim 2.5 grams or Trichoderma 6 grams per kg of seeds before sowing. Trichoderma is also used by mixing it in cow dung. To sow the seeds, prepare rows 1.5-2 cm deep and keeping a distance of 15 cm.
Field preparation and transplanting
Before planting papaya plant, the field should be plowed well and leveled so that there is no water logging at the time of irrigation or during the rainy season. To plant papaya plant in the main field, dig pits of size 50 X 50 X 50 cm at a distance of 2 X 2 meters, but for dwarf varieties like Pusa Nanha, keep this distance only 1.5 X 1.5 meters. Keep in mind that 2-3 plants of dioecious variety and one plant of gynodioecious variety should be planted per pit. Light irrigation should be given to each plant after planting.
Papaya can be easily grown from the seeds of two-fruited trees and if papaya is grown as the main crop, then pulse crops like peas, fenugreek, gram, french beans and soyabean etc. can be easily grown in the middle of the rows. Some vegetables can also be grown in which the problem of pests and diseases is less. Do not grow chilli, tomato, brinjal, okra etc. crops as inter cropping between papaya plants.
Due to papaya being a shallow rooted plant, it is necessary to give water at the right time. Irrigation should be done at an interval of about one week in summer and at an interval of 12-15 days in winter. Along with this, in such areas where the problem of water logging is more, there should be drains made in the middle of the queues for drainage of water.
Manure and fertilizers
While preparing the field, mix 10 to 15 tons of well-rotted cow dung manure in the soil, apart from this, giving 200-250 grams of Nitrogen, 200-250 grams of Phosphorus and 250 to 500 grams of Potash to each fruiting tree gives good yield. Is.
Protect plants from frost
Frost has a very adverse effect on papaya plants. In winter, when the temperature starts falling below 10 degree Celsius, many times the entire crop gets destroyed due to frost. Therefore timely protection of plants from frost is very important. At the end of November, when the temperature starts falling, it should be covered properly by applying grass-pallets and straws from three sides. There are some other ways to protect from frost, such as irrigation in the orchards when there is a possibility of frost or by burning grass and smoke in the night, plants can also be saved from cold.
Hoeing and weed management
Some time after planting, different types of weeds grow around the plants, which keep competing with the plants for nutrients, space, moisture, etc., as well as different types of pests and diseases. Also gives a chance to flourish. While weeding, soil should also be offered near the stem of the plants so that they do not come in direct contact with water.
Thinning of fruits
If more fruits are planted in the bunch of fruits, then they do not grow properly. For this, in order to get good sized fruits, the fruits should be removed from the middle and two fruits should be left on one lump in the opposite direction. Due to which the size and quality of fruits will increase.
Papaya’s major pests and diseases
It is a serious disease in the nursery, which is caused by a fungus called Pythium aphanidermatanum. Its effect is more on the newly sprouted plant, due to this disease, the stem of the plant rots near the ground and after some time the plant withers and falls. For its control, there should be proper arrangement of drainage in the nursery. Also, as far as possible, the nursery soil should be treated with formaldehyde medicine (2.5 percent solution) before sowing the seeds and covered with polythene for 48 hours. If symptoms appear, apply Carbendzym 50 WP or Metalaxal 8% + Mancozeb 64. Drenching with 2 gm of WP mixture per liter of water or give water to the roots.
This disease is caused by soil borne fungus Pythium aphanidermatum. First of all due to this disease watery spots appear on the stem which later increase and spread everywhere. Due to this disease, the roots start rotting, as well as the leaves of the plant also turn yellow and the plant falls down untimely. For its control, there should be proper arrangement of water drainage in the field. Diseased plants along with their roots should be uprooted and burnt, and new plants should not be planted in place of diseased plants. If spots are visible on the stem, make a solution of Carbendzym 50 WP or Metalaxal 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP at 2 grams per liter of water and spray the soil near the stem of the plant.
Mosaic disease of Papaya
The outbreak of this disease can happen at all stages of the plant, but it affects the new plant a lot. The upper new leaves become smaller in size and blister-like spots appear. The growth of the plant is very less and the size of the fruit becomes small. The insect that spreads this disease is aphid. Therefore, for prevention, uproot and destroy the diseased plants. Spray neem based insecticide on the plant by making a solution of 5 ml per liter of water. Or Imidacloprid 17.8 S.L. Spray by mixing 1 ml per 3 liters of water.
Mealy bug in papaya
It is a small polyphagous juice-sucking insect. Cotton-like waste material appears on the affected part. This pest sucks the juice from the upper part of the plant, due to which the stem becomes weak, as well as the affected leaves also get twisted and it turns yellow and starts drying. The effect of this pest is more in hot and dry weather.
Mealybug can be easily controlled at the initial stage. For this, cut and burn the affected branches of plants or suppress them so that it does not spread to other plants. Mealybug likes to live on grass or weeds, so keep removing them on time. Use insecticide like neem oil 1 to 2 %. If the pest is still not controlled, spray Profenophos 50 EC or Chlorpyrifos 20 EC or Buprofezin 25 EC, or Dimethoate 30 EC or Imidacloprid at the rate of 2 mg per liter of water.
Harvesting and yield of Papaya
Papaya plants start bearing fruits within about 7-10 months after planting. They start ripening after 120-130 days after planting, at that time they should be plucked. The color of the fruit starts changing from dark green to light yellow, this color changes from the top part of the fruit. When the yellowing starts, then harvest the fruit along with the stalk. You can identify the ripeness of the fruit even by putting a fingernail on the fruit. If instead of milk, water and liquid comes out from the fruit, then it should be understood that the fruit is ripe. Generally about 50 to 70 kg per plant from papaya. yield is obtained.
English Summary: How to prepare Papaya tree orchards Published on: 29 April 2021, 04:00 IST