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contribution of earthworms in agriculture
Earthworm is called the friend of the farmers and the intestine of the land. It integrates organic matter, humus and soil and spreads it in other layers inside the ground, it pollutes the ground and increases air circulation and also increases water holding capacity. The chemical action and action of micro-organisms in the earthworm’s stomach increases the availability of phosphorus, potash, calcium and other micro-elements that go into the soil. It has been found that nitrogen in the soil increases by 7 times, phosphorus by 11 times and potash by 14 times. And earthworm 1-5 mm per year. Creates thick cultivable land.
The excreta obtained from earthworms mixed with decomposed organic matter is called vermicompost. Vermi compost is a natural organic product, which does not leave any harmful residue in the soil and agricultural products. It is a complex bio-fertilizer and is more suitable and full of nutrients than other compost fertilizers. Nitrogenous, potash and other micronutrients are found in the excreta of earthworms, which make the soil fertile, and are helpful in the growth and development of the plant.
Importance of earthworm manure in agriculture
It is very important to have good physical structure and quality of soil for crop production. Due to having quality land, the circulation of air and water in the soil and water holding capacity is good. Many types of beneficial microorganisms reside in the soil. Whose presence keeps the soil fertile for a long time. It provides various types of nutrients to the plant, which increases productivity and keeps the soil balanced, which makes the land sustainable. Weeds grow less in vermicompost land and plants are less prone to diseases. There is an increase in the exchange of ions between the plants and the soil. At present, due to use of chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides and weedicides in an unbalanced manner without thinking to increase the production, the quality of the land is continuously deteriorating, due to which the durability and productivity of the soil is adversely affected. To solve all these problems Using earthworm manure (organic manure) in agriculture is the best option to maintain the quality and productivity of the land.
Materials required for making vermicompost
Cow dung or slurry (15-20 days old)
organic matter and biomass
grass (green or dry)
earthworm (advanced species)
Vermi compost making method
Important species of earthworms – Icenia foetida Eudrillus eugenii, Pharionix excavates etc.
Proper food item for earthworm – To make earthworm manure, first of all cow dung, grass, straw, waste of trees and plants and rotten vegetables are first made into a heap in a shady place, as a result of decomposition and chemical reactions, the temperature of the heap rises. increases. In this situation, the mixture of grass and cow dung should be overturned. Repeat this process again after a few days.
Cultivation – First of all, make a shed on a high and cool clean place or by laying bricks in a shady place under dense trees or level the ground well, 10 m from stone or brick or polythene sheet. long, 1 m. wide and 0.5 m. Makes deep beds. Length can be increased as per requirement.
After 30 days, earthworms are ready to leave in the prepared food item, the material prepared in the bed or tank should be filled in the bed or tank up to a height of about 3 feet. Cow dung should not be too new or old (15-20 days old cow dung is suitable.)
Earthworms of higher species are released in the finished material. Earthworms are spread and partially covered. In 1-2 days some amount of excreta of earthworms starts appearing on the upper surface, this is called earthworm manure, it remains granular like tea leaves. After about one month, manure should be removed from the upper surface (8 to 12 inches thick) and keep removing it at certain intervals, in this way quality vermicompost is prepared.
Above mentioned conditions for vermicompost production
Temperature – 25-32 centigrade temperature is suitable for proper growth and reproduction of earthworm.
Moisture – Suitable drainage and about 40-50 percent moisture in the material.
Light – Sunlight should not fall directly on the material.
pH – Production is possible in medium having pH of 5.0-7.5 or it is best to have neutral substance.
The tank should be constructed in a shady place by making a shed.
The bottom of the tank should be hard so that earthworms do not enter inside the ground and there should be sufficient gradient in the bottom so that unnecessary water can be removed.
Earthworms should be protected from eating animals such as ants, insects, chickens and birds.
Glass, stone, plastic, acidic substances and other substances which do not decompose easily should be removed from the composting material.
Earthworms should be protected from excessive sunlight.
benefits of earthworm manure
The soil becomes friable by the use of earthworm manure, due to which the nutrients and water holding capacity increases in it and the movement of air in the soil also remains fine and the amount of humus in the soil increases.
Compared to other fertilizers, the nutrients required for the crop are available in more quantity in vermicompost.
The use of earthworm manure increases the productivity by 30-60 percent depending on the crop, season and other factors.
By spreading earthworm manure in the land and its activation in the land, the land becomes friable and fertile. This creates a proper environment for the roots of the plants, due to which they grow well.
The produce produced from vermi compost is very beneficial for health and the product also gets more value in the market.
By using vermi compost, we can get more production by reducing our agricultural cost.
Self-supporting development of the village can be achieved by the use of vermicompost. That is, the unemployed can get employment.
It gets ready in very less time.
Microorganisms found in earthworms balance the taste of the soil.
Earthworm manure increases organic matter in the soil and provides continuity in biological activities in the soil.
Earthworm manure increases the storage capacity of agricultural produce.
Continuous use of earthworm manure reduces the problem of pests and diseases and weeds grow less in the field, due to which the expenditure incurred in all these also decreases.
It is helpful in reducing the salinity of the soil.
It increases the number of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Since cow dung, crop residue, garbage and rotten vegetables are used in making earthworm manure, due to which there is a reduction in dirt and the environment remains safe and balanced.
The use of earthworm manure does not lead to leaching of plant nutrients.
Irrigation is saved by the use of earthworm manure.
Its use improves the taste, shape, colour, quality and production of fruits, vegetables and grains.
Comparison of earthworm manure and compost manure
Lata Verma, M.Sc. (agronomy)
Hemant Kumar, M.Tech. (FMPE)
English Summary: Importance of earthworm fertilization in organic farming … Published on: 25 May 2018, 05:11 IST