Many people like gardening at patio, and it’s easy to understand why. Growing your own flowers, herbs, and veggies may be a fulfilling activity that makes you feel accomplished and satisfied. There are many tips and methods to help you get the most out of your gardening efforts, whether you are an experienced gardener or are just getting started. We’ll provide you some helpful home gardening suggestions in this post to get you started on your gardening adventure. These suggestions can assist you in quickly growing a wholesome and fruitful garden, from picking the ideal area to harvesting your plants at the ideal moment.
Bihar is the largest producer of Litchi in .
Litchi is in demand all over the world because of its unique taste. Vitamin C is found in plenty in it. Although China is the country that produces the most Litchi, but is also not far behind in this matter.
About 1 lakh tonnes of litchi is produced every year in . Good quality Litchi is in great demand in the local as well as in the international market. Although most litchis are eaten fresh, but jam, syrup, nectar, carbonated drinks, etc. are also prepared from its fruits.
Where is the maximum litchi grown in ?
The highest litchi production in is in Bihar where Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga districts produce maximum litchi. After Bihar comes the number of West Bengal, Assam, Uttarakhand and Punjab.
Climate for Litchi
The temperate climate is suitable for the production of litchi. When the sky is clear and dry at the time of flowering in January-February, good manjari is formed in litchi, due to which more fruits are produced. Due to less heat in March and April, development of fruits, development and quality of pulp is good. Litchi cultivation requires a specific climate. Its cultivation is easily done in the country in North Bihar, Dehradun valley, Terai region of Uttar Pradesh and some areas of Jharkhand state. Litchi flowers in January-February and fruits ripen in May-June.
Selection of soil
Deep sandy loam soil having high water holding capacity is suitable for litchi cultivation. Litchi cultivation can also be done in light acidic and laterite soil, but waterlogged areas are not suitable for litchi. Therefore, it is beneficial to cultivate it in a well-drained land.
Shahi: This is a commercial and early variety of the country, whose fruits are round and the skin is dark red. And they are juicy white in color from inside. The fruits of this variety ripen from 15-30 May. Aroma and high quantity of pulp are the main characteristics of this variety. 80-100 kg yield per year can be obtained from 15-20 year old plant of this variety.
China: It is a late maturing variety with relatively dwarf plants. The fruits of this variety are free from the problem of cracking. Due to the deep red color of the fruit and the high amount of pulp, it is in high demand. This variety gives fruits in the second year except one year.
Swarna Roopa: This variety is suitable for the plateau region of Chotanagpur. Its fruits ripen in medium time and are free from the problem of cracking. The smaller the seed size, the sweeter the pulp.
Apart from this, Early Bedana, D-Rose and Trikolia are also good varieties of litchi.
For commercial cultivation of litchi, the plant is prepared by guti method. The plants obtained from seeds do not produce good quality fruits and they also bear fruit late. Healthy and straight shoots are selected in the month of May-June for the preparation of saplings by guti method. 40-50 cm below the top of this branch, near any knot, a 2 cm wide circular ring is made with a knife. 2000 ppm of IBA at the top end of the ring. A quantity of paste is made and applied on the ring or rings. The rings are covered with moist moss grass, a piece of polythene is wrapped on top and tied tightly with a twine so that air can enter. Within about 2 months after tying the knot, the roots come out completely. After this, take out about half the leaves of the branch, cut it from the plant and plant it in a partially shady place.
How to Plantation
It would be appropriate to plant the litchi plant in a pit of size 1 X 1 X 1 at a distance of 10 X 10 meters in the month of April-May. In the beginning of monsoon, mix 2-3 baskets of well rotten cow dung, 2 kg neem cake, 1 kg single super phosphate in the soil and fill the pit. In areas with heavy rainfall, fill the pit 20-25 cm higher than the normal surface of the field so that the soil gets buried and water does not accumulate around the plant for a long time.
Fruit cracking: The problem of fruit cracking is common in litchi. This problem occurs due to moisture in the soil and strong hot winds. Most of the early ripening varieties have more problem of fruit cracking. To counter this, plant wind proof trees around the garden and do mulching in October. Keep irrigating lightly from April till the fruits ripen and sprinkle water on the trees. Along with this type of management, after 15 days of fruit set, spray 5 grams per liter borax or 5 grams per liter soluble boron 20% solution on the tree 2-3 times at an interval of 15 days.
Litchi Mite: It is a small spider which continuously sucks the juice by sticking to the lower surface of tender leaves, twigs and peduncles, due to which the leaves become thick and twisted. Due to this the plants become weak. For its control, 2 ml of Properzit 57% EC or 0.4 ml of Abamectin 1.9% EC should be sprayed in one liter of water.
Twig borer: These insects enter the young shoots of the plants through the soft twigs and feed on their inner part, due to which the twigs dry up. For prevention, the affected branch should be broken and burnt. Spray with chemical treatment like cypermethrin 1 ml or emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 0.5 per liter of water. Or as a biological treatment, spray Bavaria bassiana @ 2.5 grams per liter of water.
Fruit Borer: When there is excess moisture, these insects enter inside the fruit and rot the fruit. To prevent its outbreak, spray Cypermethrin 25% EC @ 0.5 ml per liter of water about 40-45 days before harvesting. Spray at 15 days interval as per requirement
Litchi Bug: Usually the outbreak of this pest is seen on the plants in March-April and July-August. These insects make them weak by sucking juice from soft twigs, leaves and fruits. Apart from this, they stop the growth of fruits. In this case, Cypermethrin 25% EC @ 0.5 ml or 1 ml of Chlorpyriphos should be sprayed in 1 liter of water.
Anthracnose Disease: With this disease brown spots on leaves, shedding of leaves and drying of twigs etc. are visible. To control it, spray Mancozeb 75 WP @ 2 grams per liter of water per acre. Or spray as organic by mixing Trichoderma viridi @ 2 grams per liter of water.
Manure & Fertilizer
Litchi plants should be given 30 kg well rotten cow dung manure, 2 kg neem cake, 250 grams urea, 150 grams single super phosphate and 100 grams muriate of potash per plant every year till the initial years. After 3 years, it would be appropriate to give 35 kg well rotten cow dung manure, 500 grams urea, 2.5 kg neem cake, 500 grams single super phosphate and 600 grams muriate of potash per plant per year. For 7-10 year crop, increase the quantity of cow dung to 40-50 kg, Urea 1000-1500 grams, Single Super Phosphate 1000 grams and Muriate of Potash 300-500 grams per tree.
When the crop becomes 10 years old and reaches the stage of high fruiting, then 60 kg of cow dung, 1600 grams of urea, 2.25 kg of single super phosphate and 600 grams of muriate of potash should be given per tree per year.
Do irrigation after fertilization. It is better to apply manure immediately after harvesting litchi fruits. Due to which the development and fruiting of buds in plants is good.
After planting litchi plants, do regular irrigation according to the need. Irrigation should be done for 5-6 days in winter and at an interval of 3-4 days in summer. When the litchi tree reaches the stage of bearing fruit, do not give water for 3-4 months before flowering (November to February). This encourages flowering. Due to lack of water, the development of fruits stops and the fruits start cracking.
Due to dense branches in a fully developed tree, the sunlight does not reach and at the same time the possibility of getting pests and diseases increases. That’s why in the first 3-4 years of Litchi, remove the unwanted or dry branches of the plants. 3-4 main branches of the tree should be allowed to develop, by doing this, fruiting also increases and the attack of pests and diseases also reduces.
Growing of weeds around the trees increases the problem of pests and diseases. Weeds can be destroyed by hand or agricultural machinery. Weedicides should be avoided as it can have adverse effect on the trees.
Fruit harvesting and storage
The fruit turns pink at the time of ripening and the surface of the fruit becomes flat. The fruit should be broken into bunches. This fruit cannot be stored for a long time. Therefore, to sell in the nearest market, harvesting should be done after fully ripening and to send it to distant markets, it should be harvested at the time when the fruit turns pink. After harvesting the fruits should be graded according to their color and size. Spread the green leaves of litchi and pack them in baskets. Litchi fruits should be stored at 1.6-1.7 degree Celsius temperature and 85-90% humidity. The fruits can be stored this way for 8-12 weeks.
On an average 70-100 kg of fruits per tree can be obtained from fully developed 15-20 year old litchi plants.
Contact formula / Where to buy litchi plant (For contact / Where to buy litchi plant)
There are many government institutes of horticulture and agricultural universities in the country which can be contacted.
National Research Center on Litchi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar or Director 06212289475, 09431813884 can be contacted.
Training and contact can be made with National Litchi Research Center Muzaffarpur for litchi cultivation and saplings available.
English Summary: Complete information on Litchi cultivation Published on: 12 November 2020, 03:36 IST